Create a 14 page essay paper that discusses Soft Systems Methodology.
Download file to see previous pages… This action research-based, interpretive approach is strongly influenced by Vickers’ (1968, pp.59,176) description of the importance of appreciative systems in dealing with human complexity. Checkland (1981), and Checkland and Scholes (1990) have attempted to transform these ideas from systems theory into a practical methodology that is called Soft Systems Methodology (SSM).
Soft Systems Methodology developed by Professor Peter Checkland is a way of dealing with problem situations in which there is a high social, political and human activity component. (Checkland, 1981) This distinguishes SSM from other methodologies that deal with hard problems which are more technologically oriented. Thus, SSM can be a useful research tool for understanding problematic ELT situations. (Holliday, 1990)
Hard problems are problems characterized by the fact that they can be well defined. The assumption is that there is a definite solution and we can define a number of specific goals that must be accomplished. Soft problems, on the other hand, are difficult to define.When we think of soft problems, we don’t think of problems but of problem situations. It is the classic situation of it not being a “problem” but an “opportunity”. Soft Systems methodology was developed for the express purpose of dealing with problems of this type.His “Soft Systems Methodology” was created through a number of research projects in industry and its application and refinement over a number of years. A leading SSM specialist in Japan, suggests that SSM can be a useful research tool in the educational context, and argues that it can be applied to any messy, problematic human situation that requires decision-making aimed at improvement (Kijima, 1999) The most important feature of this analysis of data, information and knowledge is that the act of creating information is a human act, not one which a machine can accomplish. It is the human being who can attribute meaning to the selected data. (Checkland, Holwell, 1998)
SSM is divided into seven distinct stages. These are.
1.Finding out about the problem situation. This is basic research into the problem area. Who are the key players How does the process work now etc.
2.Expressing the problem situation through Rich Pictures. As with any type of diagram, more knowledge can be communicated visually. A picture is worth a 1000 words.
3.Selecting how to view the situation and producing root definitions. From what different perspectives can we look at this problem situation.
4.Building conceptual models of what the system must do for each root definitions. You have basic “Whats” from the root definitions. Now begin to define “Hows”.
5.Comparison of the conceptual models with the real world. Compare the results from steps 4 and 2 and see where they differ and are similar.
6.Identify feasible and desirable changes. Are there ways of improving the situation.
7.Recommendations for taking action to improve the problem situation. How would you implement the changes from step 6.
Step 1: Problem situation unstructured
The initial stage consists simply of managers and/or employees (problem owner) deciding that a review or change of tasks and the way they are performed is required, and an analyst (problem solver) is called in to review and provide recommendations.
Complete 9 page APA formatted essay: Economics of the Environment.
Download file to see previous pages… Particular issues include the cost and benefits of alternative environmental policies to deal with air pollution, water quality, and toxic substances, Solid waste, and global warming (Hanely, Shogern &. White, 2001). Some of the major projects, which have substantial environmental impacts, is Afforestation of Surplus agricultural land, hydroelectric schemes, Building, or widening roads, constructing a new Airport and Manufacturing cars. All the above projects are likely to generate substantial Environmental costs and/or benefits, and they can be considered as Potential Investment. Potential Investment: A Potential Investment can be defined as the Investment made by an investor for growth (profit) of his/her investments in a firm or in a project. Investors look for evidence that, we can really produce growth in our project, and they look for three important things before investing, excellent growth potential, exceptional return on investment, up to 25% to 45% and a way to get their money out. We have to show them how our opportunity will deliver all three, and doing so will be a potential investment made by an investor in our firm or in a project. A Potential Investment can also be a huge project, which has a substantial impact on the environment. It can be a Hydroelectric project, Afforestation project, Building or widening roads, constructing a new airport, and Manufacturing cars. As these projects, have many impacts such as on environment, for profit of an investor, public convenience and many more. When a project is been started, they are many calculation done for different purpose, such as profit, low initial cost, higher efficiency of the project, easy maintenance, etc… In
addition, for doing such calculation different numerical, theoretical, ratio analysis and analytical
methods such as CBA (cost beneficial analysis) and CEA (cost effectiveness analysis) are been
For this assignment, we select Afforestation of surplus agricultural land as our major
project, which deals with planting of trees on land that did not carry forest for centuries, i.e.
Afforestation is a clear shift in land use of a certain area. Afforestation in form of planting trees
and future maintenance is an investment for landowner, and possible forgone revenues from
Agriculture need to be included. Afforestation of former arable land will have many positive
environmental effects. The change from agriculture to forestry means less input of pesticides and
Fertilizers that may possibly leach to ground water reserves and the establishment of habitat for
species associated with forest. Forest’s also able to better retain nitrogen from arable use in the
ecosystem, thereby avoiding eutrophication of water reserves. In this paper, we show how CBA
can be used as a decision support mechanism for the location of new (urban) forestland, starting
from the multifunctional role of these new forests. We start with a simple presentation of the
Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) technique. Key features of these evaluation techniques are that (i)
assess the monetary value of all benefits and cost (ii) the issue of discounting and (iii) the
decision rules used in CBA. Finally, we apply the CBA to a real life policy problem. We
investigate the net benefits per Hectare of combinations of potential forests that meet the surface
restriction of 540 ha. We show the importance of including recreation benefits in the evaluation
of afforestation projects and more specifically the role of alternative forests (substitutes) in the
valuation of one specific Forest.
I will pay for the following essay Nursing Care and Management. The essay is to be 16 pages with three to five sources, with in-text citations and a reference page.
Download file to see previous pages… The nurse is responsible for maintaining the lines and preventing complications throughout therapy. Therefore, practically, the nurses need to know the administration methods and primary uses of intravenous therapy. As far as the peripherally inserted short intravenous catheters are concerned, the nurses need to know how to maintain, manage, and offer care to these lines and devices, since a default in such knowledge may lead to several aberrations culminating into complications that may increase the sufferings of the patients (Dougherty, 2002, 45-52). Therefore, to ensure quality and standards of care, it would be worthwhile to examine the knowledge of the nurses and their understanding about the care and management short peripheral catheters in actual practice. The intent of this study from the literature can help this researcher identifying gaps, if there be any, in the understanding of this process, and then steps to address these deviations in care can be employed to improve case based on evidence.
Background: The factors that are involved in choosing an intravenous delivery method would be dictated by the therapy’s purpose and duration. the patient’s diagnosis, age, and health history. and the condition of his veins. In peripheral intravenous therapy, the nurse is required to administer intravenous solutions through a vein in the arm, hand, leg, or foot for short-term or intermittent therapy. The nurse in this regard is required to know how to prepare the intravenous catheter insertion site, how to insert, maintain, and remove specific intravenous lines and devices. how to control infection and maintain flow rates. and how to monitor the patient’s response to therapy. The nurse has also patient-teaching responsibilities in relation to the intravenous therapy issues (HICPAC, 2002).
Although applicable to surgical intensive care practice nursing, the statement made by Chesnutt and Everhart holds good for management and care of short intravenous catheters for intravenous therapy. It has been observed that graduate nurses function as advanced beginners. These nurses mainly rely on rules and at the same time lack the clinical ability to adapt to rapidly changing situations. However, they are task oriented. In addition, a focus on completing tasks rather than using advanced planning and prevention strategies may hinder the nurses from preventing urgent situations among patients. Thus, there is a need for nurses to have the skills to anticipate and prevent complications. It is to be noted that this holds good for all clinical techniques and skills, not just intravenous catheter related complications. However, this article also does not mention about the clinical guidelines and competency requirement of registered nurses that they require to be both accountable and responsible in terms of introducing a peripheral venous catheter and prevention of complications associated with it (Chesnutt and Everhart, 2007, 36-51).
Karadeniz and coworkers in their article, “Nurses’ knowledge regarding patients with intravenous catheters and phlebitis interventions” explore these responsibilities in terms of prevention of complications associated with catheter during intravenous therapy.
Compose a 2000 words essay on Middle Class Societies Of America And England. Needs to be plagiarism free!
Download file to see previous pages… Therefore Roosevelt became the first president to support the labor and assigned the government a direct role and duty to all the people.
The new women’s colleges were opened and there the female reformers were educated. These females who were white middle class young women handled the “problem ” of Immigrant, who constituted “dark skinned” Italians, peasant Jews and immigrants from southeastern Europe.
The middle class women were barred to possess the professional educational qualifications pursue Consumer’s League, and “Americanizing” centers known as settlement houses. These organizations targeted to wipe off the corruption and vice bred by the men their career. So, the women formed into groups and had built themselves as associations to take active part in the public life. Some of the associations are Women’s Trade Union League, the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, and the National.
The women succeeded in their campaign to get the right to vote. But their battle of suffrage lasted for as long as from 1848 to 1920, in the year 1920 nineteenth amendment granted 26 million women, half of the nations population, the right to vote. The Fourteenth Amendment sanctioned the citizenship to the blacks. The Civil Rights Law of the 1960s was stepping stone for those who fought for America’s promise of equal rights for all.
The movement of women, for suffrage began at Seneca Falls. The American Society challenged severely the efforts of women that they cannot cross the threshold of men. But as the situation prolonged, the women got educated, and their movement turned out to be a respectable one. By 1910, the movement developed into a mass movement. In England too it was the same condition, the women were aggressive to sweep out their miseries and were carrying their movement for fundamental rights. In both the nations, by 1919, the Amendment Act was passed for women granting their right to vote.
Detroit, the city was known as the “arsenal of Democracy” during the Second World War. The city of Detroit required a large number of labor who came from Africa. They were not given accommodation and like this the riots erupted which turned to be the bloodiest in the history of he nation. This racial conflict has begun very long past in 1863 and lasted till 1941. The racial riots have a long history in Detroit. There were about 200,000 black labors, constricted to sixty square blocks and compelled to live under dreadful sanitary conditions. Awfully the place was named as Paradise Valley while it was a hell for the inhabitants. There was an integrated amusement park. It was known as Belle Isle. This was the place where the Detroit riots began at this particular spot. The rumors still aggravated the situation and mainly because of the police sergeant spread some rumors regarding a women and her baby over the Belle Isle bridge, the black retaliated, looted, destroyed white owned stores, white skinned people were attacked without discrimination. Similar way white also retaliated in the same way. The situation continued without any holds, Detroit became practically a hellhole until Mayor Edward J. Jeffries called more than six thousand federal army troops was stationed throughout the Detroit city.
Hi, need to submit a 1000 words essay on the topic Strength of Material.
Download file to see previous pages… Stress can be defined as the force acting on a given area. This is mathematically represented as
Robert hook investigated the behavior of material under tensile force and found out that the extension on materials was proportional to the applied load. This is called the hooks law. Hooks law apply up to the elastic limit. Continued application of load beyond the elastic limit results to the material becoming plastic, That is, its elongation is not proportional to the applied load and does not regain its original shape once the force is removed.
The concept of stress was introduced by Cauchy in 1822. Cauchy found out that a body was subjected to surface and internal forces. These caused the deformation on the body. When stress is uniformly distributed over the cross-sectional area of a body, it can be calculated using the formula (1), however, the stress is not uniformly distributed. Cauchy calculated the state of stress at a given point and found it to be given by the second order tensor given below.
Another version of the Mohr stress circle is using the polar approach method. The Mohr stress circle can also be used for the determination of stress in the three dimensional plane. A special Mohr circle is drawn to calculate the nominal and shear stress in the three dimensional plane. …
Are the normal stresses. Where:
Are the shear stresses
Stress can also be calculated using the Mohr stress circle. this is the graphical representation of the stress. The diagrammatic representation of the Mohr stress circle is as shown below
Fig 1 showing the Mohr stress circle
Another version of the Mohr stress circle is using the polar approach method. The Mohr stress circle can also be used for the determination of stress in the three dimensional plane. A special Mohr circle is drawn to calculate the nominal and shear stress in the three dimensional plane. Other methods used in the determination of stress include the Biot stress tensor and the Kirchhoff stress tensor (Dieter, 1989).
In general the determination of stress using the graphical methods was laborious and complex, one required a lot of skills to draw these circles and determine the normal and shear stress. The method had many mathematical errors. These methods have largely been replaced by computerized material strength analysis (Marsden &. Hughes1994).
Current methods for the evaluation of stress include the use of software’s. Software’s such as AutoCAD and solid works enable engineers to have a detailed analysis of the behavior of the designed product under loading. This helps in developing products that don’t fail easily. Another program that is widely used is the Finite element analysis program. It enables the graphical representation of a designed engineering component under load.
Dieter, G. (1989). Mechanical Metallurgy. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ferdinand, P. (1992). Mechanics of Materials. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional
Marsden, J. &. Hughes, T. (1994). Mathematical Foundations of Elasticity.
Compose a 500 words essay on Math Standards. Needs to be plagiarism free!
Download file to see previous pages… They should have the ability to find correct answers to addition,
This list however is by no means everything a student should be able to do, and only acts as a basic guideline for what a student should be able to achieve in math while they are in the California educational system.
The goals associated with student’s learning in mathematics are also important. Students should develop fluency in basic computational Skills, develop an understanding of mathematical Concepts and Become mathematical problem solvers who can recognize and solve routine problems readily and can find ways to reach a solution or goal where no routine path is apparent. These are the three goals that all students should develop while learning math, and are important to their overall schooling as they grow up to adults upon their leaving of the educational system.
In a general education class these broads skills are skills that all students should learn, and are skills that are helpful to teach to everybody. Some students will learn them fast, and others will struggle, but by teaching them as general educations everybody can learn them on the same level filed.
SLO# 1 Civil Liberties v Civil Rights
Civil liberties and civil rights are mechanical components that have tremendous influence on the way we live our life. Each category can be applied in different situations, to identify different experiences for each individual. People in the USA are beginning to question whether democracy is worth fighting for as more instances are identified in which human beings find themselves ‘above the law’ (e.g. government officials, bureaucrats and civil servants violate laws that otherwise ‘ordinary citizens’ would quickly be found guilty, and be forced to pay fines and/or be confined and incarcerated). Visit the links below, then respond to the ensuing situations [*do your best to overlook authors’ personal opinions and rather consider the issues identified; also, consider the possibility that these situations maybe taking place in any/all of the 50 states across the USA*].
Define Civil Liberties; then define Civil Rights. How are they similar? How do they differ? Which civil sequence has more influence on your life as you know it to be now? Why do you believe this to be so?
Where do the courts weigh in? Search the Supreme Court database:
then identify one case for each situation (i.e. Civil Liberties case; then a Civil Rights case). Which situation would have more influence on the quality of life in the states? Which part of the USA would register a deeper impact of judicial decision(s) reached in the case identified (i.e. in relation to making the most of your life experiences)?
Hi, need to submit a 750 words essay on the topic Trillion Dollar Bet.
Download file to see previous pages… Quantitative finance is still a huge part of institutional investing, but despite that fact there are still those traders who feel that it is used too much. This in the end creates a certain amount of hostility between the “rocket scientists” or “quants” and the “intuitive” traders who depend only minimally on mathematics.
What is interesting, and also unfortunate about this tension, is that no one has really conducted a study that would shed light on which approach is more optimal in terms of making money for either individual investors or financial institutions. Such a study would be fascinating, and would give much needed and incredibly valuable information on trading strategies. The viewer is given the opportunity to learn of the attempts that have been made to find a mathematical formula for risk, which after some decades of research has finally been achieved by Myron Scholes and Fisher Black, with important contributions as well from Robert Merton. The ‘Black-Scholes equation’ is now ubiquitous in financial engineering, and as the program mentions, is greatly used in trading pits to estimate the price of an option. This part of the program is actually very interesting, for it discusses the historical origins of quantitative finance, in looking at the thesis of Louis Bechalier. …
For example, the factors which lead LTCM to go into liquidation are not immediately known. The viewer is also led to believe that the LTCM organization, through its vast positioning, aggravated the financial turmoil at that time. With the unknown reasoning behind the ultimate liquidation, any such conclusions or statements first should go through serious research before any final decision is made.
No evidence for this is given in the program, and also many of the guests reflect a certain bias against quantitative finance. Bias on any topic can lead to an unfortunate sense of crucial facts being potentially ignored in favor of siding with a popular idea(s). For starters, one of the guests on the program, Stan Jonas of FINAT Brothers, makes reference to a collection of people who a consumer would want to “manage their money.” In the end, who are these people and what justifies imputing to them this rare ability Also what is their track record in investment Do they consistently make money, and is this consistency verifiable to an external observer It is these questions which are truly important, and is imperative to ask in order to have a fully well rounded understanding of the subject matter that is being assessed. Sadly, Jonas does not give any names or examples unfortunately, and his statements do reflect to an already mentioned degree of bias against the practice of mathematical modeling in finance. Such a bias in and of itself is not necessarily bad, but a reader who is really interested in studying the difference in efficacious between trading strategies, i.e. maybe between those that exploit complex mathematics and those that do not, will not gain anything from Jonas’ statements.
Need an argumentative essay on Bioinformatics in cancer therapy. Needs to be 8 pages. Please no plagiarism.
Download file to see previous pages… Research proposal “Bioinformatics in cancer therapy” main idea is that cancer bioinformatics is expected to play a more important role in the identification and validation of biomarkers, specific to clinical phenotypes related to early diagnoses, measurements to monitor the progress of the disease and the response to therapy, and predictors for the improvement of patient’s life quality. Of gene-, protein-, peptide-, chemical- or physic-based variables in cancer, biomarkers were investigated from a single one to multiple markers, from the expression to functional indication, and from the network to dynamic network. Network biomarkers as a new type of biomarkers with protein-protein interactions were investigated with the integration of knowledge on protein annotations, interaction, and signaling pathway. Alterations of network biomarkers can be monitored and evaluated at different stages.
Defining something new, scientists give a chance for permanently increasing the group of patients, that need hope for everyday battle with this disease. It may be a non-relative question or a future expectation how experts in cancer bioinformatics can help clinicians to establish the potential picture of gene or protein interactions and mechanisms correlated with tumor-associated shapes, densities, or locations.
This work will be suitable for students of medical faculties and students, who study genetics and biology. This research proposal also includes reference list, introduction, and summary. Get your A!…
In this regard, the proposed research will endeavor to identify any disadvantages or flaws in the bioinformatics system that is now a major tool of experts in cancer therapies. Furthermore, the research will attempt to look for the prospects of bioinformatics, as well as cancer therapy that will be crucial for the cancer patients in the future. Additionally, it is the major objective of the proposed research to analyze studies and researchers of both perspectives that encourage and motivate the utilization of bioinformatics in cancer therapy respectively that will enable the researcher to come to a conclusion in the end of the study.
Due to such benefits of the application of bioinformatics in the cancer therapy and research, experts have indicated rapid and expanded amount of research on the tools of bioinformatics, and such tools are now becoming necessities during cancer therapies. Studies (Hollon, pp. 20-23, 2002) have specified that the major benefit of applying bioinformatics system is provision of updated information of biological changes in the patients’ body on real-time basis. In particular, computerized models represent biological information in a quantitatively that allows the therapists to know about the quantity of cancer cells in the body and the biological state of the patient. Such facility has resulted in positive outcomes after cancer therapies, as experts are now able to monitor the tumor growth that was not possible earlier during the absence of bioinformatics. Moreover, studies have indicated that gene expression of cancer cells is imperative and critical information that ensures efficient results after the treatment.
In a study, few experts (Chinnaiyan, pp.
Hi, need to submit a 500 words essay on the topic Childbirth.
Download file to see previous pages… The rate of vaginal birth after previous cesarean increased from1989 till 1996 and declined between 1996 and 2003. In the year 2003, 27.6% of all births in the United States resulted from cesarean deliveries. (MMWR, 54(02), 46)
An institutional culture that views childbirth as pathological might have contributed to an extent for the increase in cesarean deliveries in the United States. The number of voices urging to make childbirth a human and social, rather than a medical, event signifies this. However, the institutional culture is not the sole reason for these undesirable results. The safety issues of mother and child and medico legal considerations appear to have contributed to the rise. A doctor is more likely to be sued for not doing a cesarean than for doing one. In addition, a high rate of malpractice by the midwives and the insurance costs favored the pregnant women to seek the services of an obstetrician.
Childbirth is either by means of a vaginal delivery or a cesarean section. Cesarean sections are carried out by obstetricians. A few alternatives to a normal natural vaginal delivery are there for women in US. They are natural birth with pain medication, aromatherapy at birth, home birth, midwife delivery, birthing centers, water birth and Doula assistance.